Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

AUTHORIZED

APPROVED

ABANDONED

49

37

27

6

8

4

Vaccines

testing safety

and dosage

Vaccines

in expanded

safety trials

Vaccines

in large-scale

efficacy tests

Vaccines

in early or

limited use

Vaccines

approved

for full use

Vaccines

abandoned

after trials

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

49

37

27

Vaccines

testing safety

and dosage

Vaccines

in expanded

safety trials

Vaccines

in large-scale

efficacy tests

AUTHORIZED

APPROVED

ABANDONED

6

8

4

Vaccines

in early or

limited use

Vaccines

approved

for full use

Vaccines

abandoned

after trials

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

49

37

27

Vaccines

testing safety

and dosage

Vaccines

in expanded

safety trials

Vaccines

in large-scale

efficacy tests

AUTHORIZED

APPROVED

ABANDONED

6

8

4

Vaccines

in early or

limited use

Vaccines

approved

for full use

Vaccines

abandoned

after trials

Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but in 2020, scientists embarked on a race to produce safe and effective coronavirus vaccines in record time. Researchers are currently testing 90 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and 27 have reached the final stages of testing. At least 77 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.

New additions and recent updates
May 10 The F.D.A. authorizes the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for children 12 to 15.
May 7 The W.H.O. gives emergency use authorization to the Sinopharm vaccine.
May 6 Russia authorizes a one-dose version of the Gamaleya vaccine, dubbed “Sputnik Light.”
May 5 China’s Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products enters Phase 1/2.
May 3 Denmark announces it will no longer use Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine.
May 1 Baltimore-based Elixirgen Therapeutics enters Phase 1/2.
April 30 Turkey’s Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey enters Phase 1.
April 28 A third vaccine from China’s Sinopharm enters Phase 1/2.
April 28 Kazakhstan begins public use of its QazVac vaccine.
April 26 A vaccine from Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital moves to Phase 3.
April 23 The European Commission is preparing a legal case against AstraZeneca for failing to deliver enough doses.
Leading vaccines
Developer How It Works Phase Status
U.S.A.
Germany
Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA 23 Approved in several countries.
Emergency use in U.S., E.U., other countries.
U.S.A. Moderna mRNA 3 Approved in Switzerland.
Emergency use in U.S., E.U., other countries.
Russia Gamaleya Ad26, Ad5 3 Early use in Russia.
Emergency use in other countries.
U.K.
Sweden
Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 23 Approved in Brazil. Stopped use in Denmark.
Emergency use in U.K., E.U., other countries.
China CanSino Ad5 3 Approved in China.
Emergency use in other countries.
U.S.A.
Belgium
Johnson & Johnson Ad26 3 Emergency use in U.S., E.U., other countries.
Paused in some countries. Stopped use in Denmark.
Russia Vector Institute Protein 3 Early use in Russia. Approved in Turkmenistan.
U.S.A. Novavax Protein 3
China Sinopharm Inactivated 3 Approved in China, U.A.E., Bahrain.
Emergency use in other countries.
China Sinovac Inactivated 3 Approved in China.
Emergency use in other countries.
China Sinopharm-Wuhan Inactivated 3 Approved in China.
Limited use in U.A.E.
India Bharat Biotech Inactivated 3 Emergency use in India, other countries.

Below is a list of all vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines being tested in animals. For an explanation of virus variants and mutations, see our Coronavirus Variant Tracker. For treatments for Covid-19, see our Coronavirus Drug and Treatment Tracker. For an explanation of leading vaccines, see How Nine Covid-19 Vaccines Work.

The Vaccine Testing Process

The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic.


PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response.

PHASE 1 SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage, as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

PHASE 2 EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety.

PHASE 3 EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus, measuring what’s known as the efficacy rate. Phase 3 trials are also large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects.

EARLY OR LIMITED APPROVAL: Many countries have procedures for providing emergency authorizations for vaccines, based on preliminary evidence that they are safe and effective. In addition, some countries such as China and Russia began administering vaccines before detailed Phase 3 trial data was made public. Experts have warned of serious risks from jumping ahead of these results.

APPROVAL: Regulators review the complete trial results and plans for a vaccine’s manufacturing, and decide whether to give it full approval.

COMBINED PHASES: One way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine phases. Some vaccines are now in Phase 1/2 trials, for example, which this tracker would count as both Phase 1 and Phase 2.

PAUSED or ABANDONED: If investigators observe worrying symptoms in volunteers, they can pause the trial. After an investigation, the trial may resume or be abandoned.

Filter the list of vaccines:

Preclinical Vaccines

Phase 1 Vaccines

Phase 2 Vaccines

Phase 3 Vaccines

Authorized or Approved Vaccines

Abandoned Vaccines

Genetic Vaccines

Vaccines that deliver one or more of the coronavirus’s own genes into our cells to provoke an immune response.

RNA vaccine

DNA vaccine

RNA vaccine

DNA vaccine

RNA vaccine

DNA vaccine

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES
APPROVED IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES EMERGENCY USE IN U.S., ELSEWHERE

Vaccine name: Comirnaty (also known as tozinameran or BNT162b2)
Efficacy: 91.3%
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Freezer storage only at –13°F to 5°F (–25°C to –15°C)

On Nov. 9, New York-based Pfizer and the German company BioNTech made history by announcing that their coronavirus vaccine had an efficacy rate of over 90 percent, far surpassing expectations. It was the first time anyone had found such evidence. Just over a month later, on Dec. 11, the Food and Drug Administration granted it the first emergency use authorization ever given by the United States to a coronavirus vaccine. On May 10 the F.D.A. expanded the authorization to children as young as 12.

The work on the vaccine began in January 2020, when BioNTech researchers started fashioning a genetic molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). They created the genetic instructions for building a coronavirus protein, known as spike. When injected into cells, the vaccine causes them to make spike proteins, which then get released into the body and provoke a response from the immune system. In March, BioNTech partnered with Pfizer to scale up the research, launching a clinical trial in May. They gave the vaccine the generic name tozinameran and the brand name Comirnaty

In Phase 1 trials, the researchers found that Comirnaty caused volunteers to produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, as well as immune cells called T cells that respond to the virus. On July 27, the companies announced the launch of a Phase 2/3 trial with 30,000 volunteers. On Sept. 12, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that they would seek to expand the trial to 44,000 participants.

Through the summer and into the fall, the world focused more and more of its attention on the Pfizer-BioNTech trial. In September, Dr. Albert Bourla, the chief executive of Pfizer, said that as soon as October the Phase 3 trial would deliver enough results to show if the vaccine worked or not. President Trump touted their progress, hinting that a vaccine would be available before the election. But on Oct. 27, Dr. Bourla announced that the volunteers in the trial had yet to experience enough cases of Covid-19 to determine if the vaccines work. Finally, on Nov. 9, Pfizer and BioNTech released their preliminary analysis of the first 94 cases.

Over the next month, Pfizer and BioNTech released more data on more cases. On Dec. 8 the FDA released their independent analysis of the clinical trials. They determined that Comirnaty has an efficacy rate of 95 percent. While Comirnaty caused no serious side effects, it frequently caused short-lived fatigue, fever, and muscle aches.

On Dec. 2, the United Kingdom gave emergency authorization to Pfizer and BioNTech’s vaccine, followed by many more countries. On Dec. 31, the World Health Organization gave the vaccine an Emergency Use Listing, which will speed up its authorization across the world. In Israel, which took the lead in mass vaccination, researchers found that the vaccine was as effective in the real world as the trials had indicated. A study published by the Centers for Disease Control in March found that the vaccine is 91.3% effective after the second dose. On May 7, Pfizer and BioNTech announced they would seek full F.D.A. approval for their vaccine. The process is expected to take several months.

As the trials progressed, Pfizer and BioNTech also scaled up factories to produce Comirnaty in huge amounts. To secure a supply in advance, the Trump administration awarded Pfizer and BioNTech a $1.9 billion contract in July 2020 for 100 million doses, but The New York Times reported in December that the administration passed up the chance over the summer to secure another 100 million doses. Since then, the Trump and Biden administrations reached agreements for a total of 300 million doses by the summer. In April 2021, the European Union negotiated a deal for 1.8 billion doses, which should close up the massive shortfall they experienced early in their vaccine rollout. In total, BioNTech and Pfizer expect to produce nearly 3 billion doses in 2021.

While Comirnaty has proven highly effective, it was initially a challenging vaccine to distribute because it had to be kept frozen at –94°F (–70°C). On Feb. 19, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that they could keep the vaccine stable at -25°C to -15°C (-13°F to 5°F).

In January, scientists grew concerned about the emergence of fast-spreading variants that might be able to evade antibodies. A study published in May demonstrated that Comirnaty was somewhat less effective against some variants, but still provided strong protection.

Comirnaty is currently being tested in a number of additional trials. In Feb. 2021, the companies announced a study to develop a B.1.351-specific booster. They are also running a trial specifically for pregnant women. The trial will determine whether the vaccine provides as much protection for them as for women who aren’t pregnant, and also gather information on its safety. Comirnaty is also one of several vaccines being tested in an Oxford study to gauge how well alternating doses promote immunity.

Dr. Bourla, the chief executive, said people would “likely” need an additional shot of its vaccine within a year of receiving two doses. He also said that it’s possible that vaccinations could recur each year.

For more details, see How the Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Works and How Pfizer Makes Its Covid-19 Vaccine.

Approved for use in: Bahrain, Brazil, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland.
Emergency use in: Argentina, Australia, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, European Union, Greenland, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Iceland, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Maldives, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Norway, North Macedonia, Oman, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Serbia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay. Emergency use validation from the World Health Organization. Recommended for emergency use by the Caribbean Regulatory System.
Updated May 10

Pfizer-BioNTech

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

SWITZERLAND

CANADA

JAPAN

TUNISIA

MONGOLIA

U.S.

PHILIPPINES

IRAQ

SAUDI

ARABIA

BAHRAIN

U.A.E.

MALAYSIA

MEXICO

OMAN

BRAZIL

ECUADOR

SINGAPORE

AUSTRALIA

BOTSWANA

PERU

NEW

ZEALAND

SOUTH

AFRICA

ARGENTINA

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Pfizer-BioNTech

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

MONGOLIA

CANADA

JAPAN

TUNISIA

IRAQ

U.S.

PHILIPPINES

BAHRAIN

SAUDI

ARABIA

MALAYSIA

MEXICO

BRAZIL

BOTSWANA

SINGAPORE

AUSTRALIA

PERU

NEW

ZEALAND

ARGENTINA

SOUTH

AFRICA

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Pfizer-BioNTech

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

CANADA

JAPAN

TUNISIA

IRAQ

U.S.

PHILIPPINES

SAUDI

ARABIA

BAHRAIN

MALAYSIA

MEXICO

BRAZIL

BOTSWANA

SINGAPORE

PERU

NEW

ZEALAND

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

ARGENTINA

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Pfizer-BioNTech

vaccine

CANADA

U.S.

MEXICO

BRAZIL

PERU

ARGENTINA

NEW

ZEALAND

CHILE

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

MONGOLIA

JAPAN

TUNISIA

IRAQ

PHILIPPINES

BAHRAIN

SAUDI

ARABIA

MALAYSIA

BOTSWANA

SINGAPORE

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN SWITZERLAND EMERGENCY USE IN U.S., ELSEWHERE

Vaccine name: mRNA-1273
Efficacy: More than 90%
Dose: 2 doses, 4 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: 30 days with refrigeration, 6 months at –4°F (–20°C)

On Dec. 18., the F.D.A. gave emergency use authorization for a vaccine made by the Boston-based company Moderna. The Moderna vaccine is the second one authorized by the F.D.A., coming a week after the vaccine made by Pfizer and BioNTech.

Like Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna makes its vaccine from mRNA. In recent years, the company has tested mRNA vaccines for a number of diseases, but they have yet to bring one to market. Last January, they began developing a vaccine for the coronavirus.

The United States government bankrolled Moderna’s efforts, providing nearly $1 billion in support. In partnership with National Institutes of Health, they found that the vaccine protects monkeys from the coronavirus. Last March, the scientists were the first to put a Covid-19 vaccine into human trials. After those studies yielded promising results, Phase 3 testing on 30,000 volunteers began on July 27.

On Nov. 16, Moderna announced the first preliminary data from the trial, followed by the complete data on Nov. 30. The researchers estimated that the vaccine had an efficacy rate of 94.1 percent. While it’s not clear how long this efficacy will last, Moderna has found that after three months the trial participants still have a strong immune defense against the coronavirus. On Dec. 2, Moderna registered a trial to test the vaccine on adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. In March, the company began testing the vaccine in babies and young children.

Meanwhile, the company entered deals with several countries to supply the vaccine pending its approval. On Aug. 11 last year, the United States government awarded the company an additional $1.5 billion in exchange for 100 million doses if the vaccine proves safe and effective. Additional negotiations have increased the agreement to 300 million doses by July 2021. On Nov. 25, the company reached an agreement with the European Commission to supply up to 160 million doses. Moderna has made similar deals with other countries including Canada, Japan, Qatar and South Korea. Moderna has also pledged 500 million doses to COVAX, a global vaccine initiative, to supply vaccines to low-income countries. On April 29, Moderna announced they would produce 800 million to 1 billion doses in 2021, and planned to manufacture 3 billion doses in 2022.

In March, Moderna began a Phase 1 trial of a vaccine made specifically for the B.1.351 variant. A variant-specific booster shot of the Moderna vaccine has yielded positive results in humans and mice. It is also conducting a Phase 1 trial of a new, refrigerator-stable vaccine. Moderna’s vaccine is one of several being tested in an Oxford study that gauges how well alternating doses can boost immunity.

For more details, see How Moderna’s Vaccine Works.

Approved for use in: Switzerland.
Emergency use in: Canada, European Union, Greenland, Guatemala, Honduras, Iceland, Israel, Kuwait, Mongolia, Norway, Qatar, Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Vietnam. Emergency use validation from the World Health Organization.
Updated May 6

Moderna vaccine

U.K. AND

E.U.

SWITZERLAND

CANADA

MONGOLIA

U.S.

ISRAEL

VIETNAM

QATAR

GUATEMALA

SINGAPORE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Moderna vaccine

U.K. AND

E.U.

SWITZERLAND

CANADA

MONGOLIA

ISRAEL

U.S.

VIETNAM

QATAR

GUATEMALA

SINGAPORE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Moderna

vaccine

U.K. AND

E.U.

SWITZERLAND

CANADA

MONGOLIA

ISRAEL

U.S.

VIETNAM

QATAR

GUATEMALA

SINGAPORE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Moderna

vaccine

CANADA

U.S.

GUATEMALA

U.K. AND

E.U.

SWITZERLAND

MONGOLIA

ISRAEL

VIETNAM

QATAR

SINGAPORE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3

Vaccine name: CVnCoV
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 2 doses, 4 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Stable at least 3 months at 36–46°F (2–8°C)

Last March, the Trump administration unsuccessfully tried to entice CureVac to move its research on their mRNA vaccine from Germany to the United States. The company plowed ahead with its work in Germany, seeing responses to the vaccine in mice and monkeys before launching clinical trials in July. In December, CureVac launched a Phase 3 trial, recruiting up to 36,500 volunteers in Germany. The European Union began a rolling review in February, intended to speed up approval if the Phase 3 trial delivers positive results. CureVac expects the trial to show if the vaccine is safe and effective in May.

In November, CureVac negotiated a deal to provide the European Union with up to 400 million doses of their vaccine. They project manufacturing up to 300 million doses in 2021 and up to a billion doses the following year. CureVac has collaborated with Elon Musk’s company Tesla on creating mRNA “micro-factories,” which could potentially be deployed around the world to make billions of doses of the vaccine. On Nov. 12, the company announced that its vaccine could be kept in a refrigerator at 41 degrees. Other RNA vaccines made by Pfizer and Moderna have to be kept frozen at chillier temperatures.

Starting in January 2021, CureVac forged a series of partnerships with pharmaceutical giants Bayer, Celonic, GSK, and Novartis, to support the production of their vaccine and develop new ones against coronavirus variants.
Updated April 26

PHASE 3

Vaccine name: ZyCoV-D
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 3 doses, 4 weeks apart
Type: Skin injection
Storage: Stable at room temperature for three months

In July 2020, the Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila began testing a DNA-based vaccine delivered by a skin patch. They launched a Phase 2 trial on ZyCoV-D on Aug. 6 and announced at the end of December that it was complete. On Jan. 3, 2021 the Indian government gave Zydus Cadila permission to advance to a Phase 3 trial with 30,000 volunteers. In an April 29 interview, the managing director of Zydus Cadila said that the trial could deliver efficacy results in May, after which the company will immediately seek emergency authorization from the Indian government.
Updated May 1

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES

Vaccine name: AG0302-COVID19
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 2 doses, 2 weeks apart
Type: Skin injection
Storage: Over a year at room temperature

On June 30, the Japanese biotechnology company AnGes launched a Phase 1 trial to test a DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio. The company moved on to a Phase 2/3 trial in December.
Updated Dec. 8

PHASE 2

Vaccine name: INO-4800
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: To be determined
Type: Skin injection
Storage: Over a year at room temperature

Before the pandemic, the Pennsylvania-based company Inovio developed DNA-based vaccines that are delivered into the skin with electric pulses from a hand-held device. They are running clinical trials for vaccines against a number of diseases, including HIV, Zika, and several forms of cancer. At the start of the pandemic, Inovio developed a DNA vaccine against the spike protein on the coronavirus. A Phase 1 trial, published in December, did not uncover any serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in all 38 volunteers.

Inovio became embroiled in several lawsuits with stockholders and a company partner. On Sept. 28, the F.D.A. put the vaccine on a partial hold due to questions about the delivery device. On Nov. 16, Inovio said that the F.D.A. had given them permission to move forward.

Inovio went on to run Phase 2 trials in the United States as well as in China and South Korea, and posted results of the studies online on May 7, 2021. They also began testing versions of their vaccine tailored against new variants.

After losing government funding for Phase 3 trials, Inovio announced that it would proceed with testing its vaccine outside of the United States.
Updated May 10

PHASE 2

The California-based company Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore have developed an mRNA vaccine. It has a “self-replicating” design that leads to a greater production of viral proteins. Tests on animals showed that it protected them against infection. In August, Arcturus launched a Phase 1/2 trial at Singapore General Hospital. On Nov. 9, the company announced that an interim analysis of the trial showed that the vaccine produced an immune response that’s in the range of responses seen in people who recovered from Covid-19. On Jan. 6 Arcturus announced that they had permission to start the Phase 2 portion of the trial in both Singapore and the United States. Singapore reached an agreement with Arcturus to spend up to $175 million to acquire vaccines when they’re ready.
Updated Jan. 12

PHASE 2

In June 2020, Chinese researchers at the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology announced they would start their country’s first safety trials on an mRNA-based vaccine, called ARCoV. Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects, and in the Phase 1 trial indicated it was safe in people. On Dec. 21, Xinhua reported that China was building a factory to produce 120 million doses per year.

Researchers launched a Phase 2 trial for the vaccine in January 2021, and registered a Phase 3 trial in April. It was scheduled to begin the following month. The Global Times reported that the trial would likely be run in Latin America.
Updated April 20

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Gennova Biopharmaceuticals in India and Seattle-based HDT Bio partnered to develop a vaccine based on self-amplifying RNA. The vaccine, known as HGC019, was able to safely provoke animals to make antibodies to the coronavirus, leading India to grant the companies approval in December 2020to start Phase 1/2 trials. On May 4, 2021 HDT announced the trial was underway in India.
Updated May 5

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

GeneOne Life Science, a South Korean biotech company, developed a DNA-based vaccine that encodes two proteins from the coronavirus. In December they launched a Phase 1/2 trial with 345 participants.
Updated Dec. 17

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

The South Korean company Genexine started testing the safety of a DNA-based vaccine in June 2020. In December, the Korea Biomedical Review reported that Genexine got disappointing results from their initial formulation and decided to restart their trials with a modified vaccine. On Jan. 20, the company registered a Phase 1/2 trial. The Indonesian pharmaceutical company Kalbe Farma pledged in April to buy 10 million doses of Genexine’s vaccine if it is proven to be safe and effective. Under the agreement, Kalbe Farma will pay for the Phase 2/3 clinical trial in Indonesia.
Updated May 1

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Takis Biotech and Rottapharm Biotech, two vaccine companies in Italy, developed a vaccine called COVID-eVax. A special device uses a tiny electric pulse to deliver DNA through the skin. The DNA enters cells, which use the genetic instructions to make spike proteins. In February, Takis and Rottapharm launched a Phase 1/2 trial. COVID-eVax can remain stable at room temperature.
Updated March 15

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. They have found that it produces a strong antibody response in mice and monkeys, and protects hamsters against coronavirus infections. In March the companies launched a Phase 1/2 trial, which they anticipate delivering results in the third quarter of 2021. The vaccine, known as MRT5500, is Sanofi’s second Covid-19 candidate in clinical trials, following their protein-based vaccine.
Updated April 20

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Japan-based researchers at Daiichi Sankyo have developed an mRNA vaccine against the coronavirus in collaboration with the University of Tokyo. They launched a Phase 1/2 trial of the vaccine, named DS-5670, on March 22.
Updated March 23

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Researchers at Baltimore-based Elixirgen Therapeutics have created an RNA vaccine, named EXG-5003, that targets a small part of the coronavirus spike protein. On April 28, they registered a Phase 1/2 trial of the vaccine in Japan.
Updated May 1

PHASE 1

Researchers at Thailand’s Chulalongkorn University have been developing several potential vaccines for the coronavirus. The furthest along is an mRNA-based vaccine known as ChulaCov19. In September 2020, the Chula Vaccine Research Center registered a Phase 1 trial to test it in humans. Due to delays in funding and manufacturing, the trial is expected to begin in April or May 2021. In an interview with the Bangkok Post, the leader of the project said that up to 30 million doses might be produced for Thailand and six other Asian countries if the vaccine proved to be safe and effective.
Updated Feb. 23

PHASE 1

The Canadian company Entos Pharmaceuticals has created a DNA vaccine for the coronavirus. Most other genetic vaccines carry the gene for the spike protein on the surface of the virus. Entos instead chose the gene for nucleocapsid, a protein that sits inside the virus’s membrane. They are betting it can offer long-lasting immunity. In October 2020, Entos launched a Phase 1 trial in Canada for their vaccine, called Covigenix VAX-001. They began dosing participants on April 15.
Updated May 5

PHASE 1

On Nov. 2, the Canadian company Symvivo announced they had administered a DNA vaccine to their first volunteer in a Phase 1 trial. The DNA is inserted into harmless bacteria, which volunteers swallow in a frozen liquid (the company is working on putting the bacteria into a pill). When the bacteria reach the intestines, the DNA slips into cells in the gut lining, which then make viral proteins.
Updated Nov. 3

PHASE 1

New Jersey-based OncoSec Immunotherapies has developed experimental cancer treatments that deliver genes into tumors. There, the injected genes produce a natural signalling molecule called IL-12, which attracts the attention of immune cells that attack the cancer. In the spring, OncoSec began adapting their technology to make a vaccine for the coronavirus. The vaccine, called CORVax12, consists of a loop of DNA that encodes both the spike protein and IL-12. Causing the body to make extra IL-12 could potentially enhance the immune system’s ability to make antibodies to the spike protein. On Nov. 13, the company registered a Phase 1 trial to test the safety of the CORVax12.
Updated Nov. 13

PHASE 1

Canada’s Providence Therapeutics specializes in messenger RNA vaccines to treat cancer. In response to the pandemic, they developed an mRNA vaccine against the coronavirus. They launched a Phase 1 study of an RNA vaccine in late January. The company expects to move into Phase 2 trials by May.
Updated Jan. 28

PHASE 1

Using a delivery system from PharmaJet, researchers at BioNet-Asia and Australia-based Technovalia have developed a DNA vaccine called COVIGEN that can be pushed through the skin without a needle. Instead, the dose is loaded into a handheld device and shot directly into cell tissue through a jet spray of fluid. Vaccines for the flu already use the device, which PharmaJet says is a safer alternative to needle injections. The researchers registered a Phase 1 trial in Australia on Feb. 8.
Updated March 4

ABANDONED

In early 2020, Imperial College London researchers developed a “self-amplifying” RNA vaccine for Covid-19, which boosted production of a viral protein to stimulate the immune system. They began Phase 1/2 trials on June 15, partnering with Morningside Ventures to manufacture and distribute the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health. On Dec. 18, the researchers announced a collaboration with Enesi Pharma to formulate a solid version of the vaccine that can be implanted in the skin without a needle.

On Jan. 27, 2021, Robin Shattuck, the leader of the project, announced that “it is not the right time to start a new efficacy trial for a further vaccine in the U.K.” Instead of competing with authorized vaccines, they are turning their efforts to making candidates that will work well against emerging variants of the coronavirus.
Updated March 20

PRECLINICAL

Other genetic vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Applied DNA Sciences, EvviVax and Takis Biotech; DIOSynVax; ETheRNA; EyeGene; Globe Biotech; Greenlight Biosciences; Infectious Disease Research Institute and Amyris; Mediphage Bioceuticals; National institute of Chemistry of Slovenia and Kemijski Inštitut; National Research Centre, Egypt; the OPENCORONA Consortia; Providence Therapeutics; Scancell; the Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council; Vaccibody.
Updated March 25

Viral Vector Vaccines

Vaccines that contain viruses engineered to carry coronavirus genes. Some viral vector vaccines enter cells and cause them to make viral proteins. Other viral vectors slowly replicate, carrying coronavirus proteins on their surface.

PHASE 3 EARLY USE IN RUSSIA EMERGENCY USE IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Vaccine name: Sputnik V (also known as Gam-Covid-Vac)
Efficacy: 91.6%
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Freezer storage. Developing an alternative formulation that can be refrigerated.

The Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia’s Ministry of Health, has created a vaccine with an efficacy rate of 91.6 percent. The creators of the vaccine published the results of their Phase 3 trial on Feb. 2 in the Lancet.

Gamaleya produced the vaccine, initially called Gam-Covid-Vac, from a combination of two adenoviruses called Ad5 and Ad26. Both kinds have been tested as vaccines over a number of years. By combining them, the Russian researchers hoped to avoid a situation in which the immune system could learn to recognize the vaccine as a foreign object that needed to be destroyed. The researchers launched clinical trials in June.

By the end of the summer, the trial became bogged down in controversy. On Aug. 11, President Vladimir V. Putin announced that a Russian health care regulator had approved the vaccine, renamed Sputnik V. Yet the Phase 3 trials had not even begun. Vaccine experts decried the move as risky, and Russia later walked back the announcement, saying that the approval was a “conditional registration certificate,” which would depend on positive results from Phase 3 trials. In addition to Russia, volunteers for the trial were recruited in Belarus, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. On Oct. 17, a Phase 2/3 trial was launched in India.

On Sept. 4, three weeks after Putin’s announcement, Gamaleya researchers published the results of their Phase 1/2 trial. They found that Sputnik V yielded antibodies to the coronavirus and mild side effects. On Nov. 11, the Russian Direct Investment Fund announced the first preliminary evidence from their Phase 3 trial indicating that the vaccine is effective. Based on 20 cases of Covid-19 among the trial participants, Russian scientists estimated that the vaccine demonstrated 92 percent efficacy.

By December, the trial had reached its final total of 78 cases. The full details of the trial came out in February, demonstrating a high efficacy after two doses. The trial did not uncover serious side effects. No one who got the vaccine experienced a serious case of Covid-19.

The trial did not demonstrate how well Sputnik V can block new variants of the coronavirus. In a study posted online in April, researchers studied antibodies from people who had received the vaccine. They found that the Sputnik V antibodies often failed to neutralize the coronavirus, allowing it to infect cells.

In an unprecedented move in the coronavirus vaccine field, the Gamaleya Institute joined forces in December 2020 with the drugmaker AstraZeneca, which makes a vaccine based on a chimpanzee adenovirus. The two teams combined their vaccines to see if the mixture can increase the efficacy of the AstraZeneca vaccine. The trial began in February.

In November 2020, the Russian government began offering Sputnik V within Russia in a mass vaccination campaign. But worry that the vaccine was rushed to approval led to widespread hesitancy. On Dec. 22, Belarus became the first country outside of Russia to register Sputnik V, and since then a number of other countries have followed suit. In Europe, where the vaccine rollout faltered badly, regulators began a rolling review of Sputnik V on March 4. If the European Medicines Agency approved it, many European countries might take up the vaccine.

On April 26, the board of Brazil’s vaccine regulator rejected Sputnik V, saying that it contained adenoviruses that had not been properly disabled. Replicating adenoviruses could make the vaccine dangerous. Anvisa, Brazil’s regulatory agency, also complained of incomplete data about the vaccine’s efficacy and safety. The Russian developers pushed back against Anvisa’s claims and said they would sue for defamation.

In January 2021, Gamaleya researchers started a trial in which they gave people only the first dose of Ad26 adenoviruses, the same adenovirus in Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine. They dubbed this one-dose version “Sputnik Light.” On Feb. 12, the director of the Gameleya center said in a television interview that it would likely provide only four to five months of protection. Russia announced on May 6 that Sputnik Light provided an efficacy of 79.4 percent but did not publish the details of the study or say how long the efficacy would last. The Russian Ministry of Health said Sputnik Light provides sufficient protection on its own to be used without a second injection. Sputnik Light received authorization for use in Russia on May 6.

For more details, see How Gamaleya’s Vaccine Works.

Early use in: Russia.
Emergency use in: Albania NEW, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh NEW, Belarus, Bolivia, Bosnian Serb Republic, Cameroon, Congo Republic, Djibouti, Egypt, Honduras, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, North Macedonia, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, San Marino, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia, Seychelles, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey NEW, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe.
Updated May 4

Gamaleya’s

Sputnik V

vaccine

RUSSIA

HUNGARY

ALGERIA

MONGOLIA

GUINEA

MALI

IRAN

PAKISTAN

BAHRAIN

VIETNAM

GABON

U.A.E.

MEXICO

VENEZUELA

INDIA

ANGOLA

MYANMAR

BOLIVIA

KENYA

PARAGUAY

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Gamaleya’s

Sputnik V

vaccine

HUNGARY

RUSSIA

ALGERIA

MONGOLIA

GUINEA

PAKISTAN

IRAN

BAHRAIN

VIETNAM

GABON

MEXICO

INDIA

U.A.E.

VENEZUELA

ANGOLA

MYANMAR

BOLIVIA

KENYA

PARAGUAY

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Gamaleya’s

Sputnik V

vaccine

RUSSIA

HUNGARY

MONGOLIA

ALGERIA

IRAN

VENEZUELA

PAKISTAN

GABON

MEXICO

INDIA

BOLIVIA

KENYA

PARAGUAY

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Gamaleya’s

Sputnik V

vaccine

VENEZUELA

MEXICO

BOLIVIA

PARAGUAY

ARGENTINA

RUSSIA

HUNGARY

ALGERIA

MONGOLIA

PAKISTAN

IRAN

BAHRAIN

GABON

INDIA

ANGOLA

KENYA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES
APPROVED IN BRAZIL EMERGENCY USE IN E.U., ELSEWHERE

Vaccine name: Vaxzevria (also known as AZD1222, or Covishield in India)
Efficacy: 76% in a U.S. study.
Dose: 2 doses
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Stable in refrigerator for at least 6 months

A vaccine designed by the University of Oxford and produced by the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca has emerged as a key element in the effort to meet the global demand for Covid-19 vaccines. With an efficacy of 76 percent, the vaccine — now known as Vaxzevria — is being produced in vast quantities at a low price. Because it only needs to be refrigerated rather than frozen, it can be used far more widely than mRNA vaccines. But Vaxzevria’s journey has been turbulent, jolted by confusing messages from AstraZeneca, high-profile worries about safety, and difficulties with manufacturing.

In early 2020, Oxford researchers developed the vaccine by genetically engineering an adenovirus that normally infects chimpanzees. When they gave the vaccine to monkeys, they found that it protected the animals from the disease.

Teaming up with AstraZeneca, they followed up with a Phase 1/2 trial. The vaccine developers did not detect any severe side effects in the trial, while observing that the vaccine raised antibodies against the coronavirus as well as other immune defenses. AstraZeneca and Oxford then embarked on late-stage trials in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and elsewhere. But the researchers ran the trials independently, making it difficult to combine their results into a single clear picture of how well the vaccine worked. Making matters murkier, they gave different amounts of the vaccine to different people and also waited anywhere from four to twelve weeks to deliver the second dose.

On Dec. 8, AstraZeneca and Oxford published the first scientific paper on a Phase 3 clinical trial of a coronavirus vaccine. The trial demonstrated that the vaccine can protect people from Covid-19, but it left many questions unresolved about the results. Nevertheless, the vaccine’s low cost and ease of storage made it attractive to countries looking for a way out of the pandemic. The United Kingdom and Argentina were the first countries to give the vaccine emergency authorization, on Dec. 30. On Jan. 3, India approved a version called Covishield, made by the Serum Institute of India. On Feb. 16 the World Health Organization recommended the vaccine for emergency use in adults 18 or older. Brazil gave full approval to the vaccine on March 13. In the same month, Covax began delivering millions of doses of the vaccine to low- and middle-income countries. The company expects a total annual manufacturing capacity of two billion doses.

Yet even after millions of people began receiving the vaccine, new concerns arose. In South Africa, a small trial failed to demonstrate that it protected people against the variant B.1.351, which has become predominant in the country. On Feb. 7, South Africa halted plans for a rollout of 1 million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

In March 2021, another concern emerged. European medical regulators became concerned about a small number of cases of blood clots in younger people who received Vaxzevria. The European Medicines Agency concluded that the vaccine had a very rare side effect in which people suffered blood clots in large veins combined with low platelets. The regulators emphasized that the vaccine is effective and the benefits it provided outweighed the small risk of its side effects. In response some countries chose to minimize the risk by restricting Vaxzevria to older people.

The United States has not yet authorized Vaxzevria, despite the lavish support it provided for its development. In 2020, the government gave AstraZeneca $1 billion to pay for research, clinical trials, and manufacturing. That summer, the company promised it would distribute Vaxzevria in the United States as soon as that October. But a concern about the health of a volunteer in the U.S. clinical trial stalled the study for seven weeks. AstraZeneca did not deliver the results of the trial until March 2021--only to be rebuked by its expert advisors for cherry-picking data. Two days later, the company announced that a fuller look at the trial showed that the vaccine had an efficacy of 76 percent against Covid-19, and 100 percent efficacy against severe disease and hospitalization. AstraZeneca is preparing its application to the F.D.A. for full authorization.

Even while it was running clinical trials, AstraZeneca reached agreements with a number of manufacturers in order to produce billions of doses of Vaxzevria. But in January 2021, it admitted that it would fall short of its promised delivery of vaccines to the European Union. Its shortfall grew only worse in March when India, facing an explosion of new cases, blocked export of the vaccine from its factories. On April 26, the European Commission announced it had filed a lawsuit against the company for breach of contract.

Yet India still struggled to vaccinate its own citizens while cases and deaths skyrocketed. The United States came under intense criticism for holding back raw materials India needed to make its own supply of Covishield. On April 25, the Biden administration announced it would partially lift its ban. But critics also point to a stockpile of millions of doses of AstraZeneca’s vaccine that the United States started building up last year. Now that the United States has enough vaccines from other companies to protect all its own citizens, there are calls to ship AstraZeneca’s vaccines to India and other countries in dire need. On April 25, Dr. Anthony Fauci said the United States government was considering sending the vaccines.

Meanwhile, AstraZeneca and Oxford are continuing research on the vaccine. On Feb. 14, they announced they would start trials on children as young as six. In an unprecedented move in the coronavirus vaccine field, they announced on Dec. 11 that they would collaborate with the Russian creators of the Sputnik V vaccine, which is also made from adenoviruses, to see if a combination with Sputnik V might increase the efficacy of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. The trial started in February 2021. Another combination trial is currently underway between the Oxford-AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Moderna and Novavax vaccines. AstraZeneca and Oxford are also working on a new version of the vaccine tailored to the B.1.351 variant and are testing a version that can be delivered as a nasal spray.

For more details, see How the Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine Works.

Approved for use in: Brazil.
Stopped use in: Denmark.
Emergency use in: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia NEW, European Union, Fiji, Georgia NEW, Ghana, Greenland, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica NEW, Kenya, Kuwait, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, Maldives, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, North Macedonia, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, South Africa, South Korea, Sudan, Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vietnam, Zambia. Emergency use validation from the World Health Organization. Endorsed by the Africa Regulatory Taskforce. Recommended for emergency use by the Caribbean Regulatory System.
Updated May 10

Oxford-AstraZeneca

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

DENMARK

CANADA

MONGOLIA

MOROCCO

SOUTH KOREA

ALGERIA

IRAN

BAHAMAS

EGYPT

PHILIPPINES

PAKISTAN

NIGERIA

INDIA

MEXICO

BRAZIL

MALAYSIA

COSTA RICA

KENYA

AUSTRALIA

NAMIBIA

MALDIVES

SEYCHELLES

CHILE

SOUTH

AFRICA

ARGENTINA

Approved

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Early, limited or

emergency use

Oxford-

AstraZeneca

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

DENMARK

CANADA

MOROCCO

MONGOLIA

SOUTH KOREA

ALGERIA

IRAN

BAHAMAS

PHILIPPINES

EGYPT

PAKISTAN

NIGERIA

MEXICO

INDIA

BRAZIL

KENYA

COSTA RICA

AUSTRALIA

NAMIBIA

MALDIVES

SEYCHELLES

CHILE

ARGENTINA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Approved

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Early, limited or

emergency use

Oxford-

AstraZeneca

vaccine

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

DENMARK

MONGOLIA

CANADA

MOROCCO

ALGERIA

SOUTH KOREA

IRAN

BAHAMAS

PHILIPPINES

EGYPT

NIGERIA

MEXICO

INDIA

BRAZIL

KENYA

COSTA RICA

NAMIBIA

MALDIVES

SEYCHELLES

ARGENTINA

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

CHILE

Approved

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Early, limited or

emergency use

Oxford-

AstraZeneca

vaccine

CANADA

BAHAMAS

MEXICO

BRAZIL

COSTA RICA

CHILE

ARGENTINA

BRITAIN AND

THE E.U.

DENMARK

MONGOLIA

ALGERIA

SOUTH KOREA

IRAN

EGYPT

PHILIPPINES

INDIA

NAMIBIA

KENYA

MALDIVES

SEYCHELLES

AUSTRALIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Stopped use

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN CHINA EMERGENCY USE IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Vaccine name: Convidecia (also known as Ad5-nCoV)
Efficacy: 65.28%
Dose: Single dose
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Refrigerated

The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed Convidecia in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. The one-shot vaccine is based on an adenovirus called Ad5. Last May, researchers published promising results from a Phase 1 safety trial on Convidecia, and in July they reported that their Phase 2 trials demonstrated the vaccine produced a strong immune response. In an unprecedented move, the Chinese military approved the vaccine on June 25 for a year as a “specially needed drug.” On Nov. 28, the Chief Executive of CanSino Biologics said in an interview that about 40,000 to 50,000 people had received Convidecia.

Starting in August 2020, CanSino began running Phase 3 trials in a number of countries, including Pakistan, Russia, Mexico and Chile. On Feb. 25, China announced the approval of the CanSino vaccine for general use. The company announced that its one-shot vaccine had an efficacy rate of 65.28 percent at preventing all symptomatic Covid-19 cases. The details of the trial have yet to be published. But on April 1, CanSino’s chief scientific officer said that the efficacy of its vaccine could drop over time. He also floated the idea of using a booster shot six months after the first dose, though more clinical trial data is needed.

On March 23, CanSino announced that it had won approval for a clinical trial of an inhaled version of the vaccine. Researchers have also begun to test whether giving alternating doses of vaccines from CanSino and Anhui Zhifei Longcom can boost their effectiveness.

Approved for use in: China.
Emergency use in: Chile, Hungary, Mexico, Pakistan.
Updated April 20

CanSino vaccine

HUNGARY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

CanSino vaccine

HUNGARY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

CanSino vaccine

HUNGARY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

CanSino vaccine

MEXICO

CHILE

HUNGARY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3 EMERGENCY USE IN U.S., ELSEWHERE

Vaccine name: Ad26.COV2.S
Efficacy: 72% in United States, 68% in Brazil and 64% in South Africa
Dose: 1 dose
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Up to two years frozen at –4° F (–20° C), and up to three months refrigerated at 36–46° F (2–8° C).

On Feb. 27, the F.D.A. issued an emergency use authorization for Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, making it the third coronavirus vaccine available in the United States. It was also the first to be shown to be safe and effective with just one dose rather than two.

The work that led to the vaccine started a decade ago at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, where researchers developed a method for making vaccines out of a virus called Adenovirus 26, or Ad26 for short. Johnson & Johnson used Ad26 to develop vaccines for Ebola and other diseases with Ad26. Last January, the company and Beth Israel researchers collaborated on creating a coronavirus vaccine. In March they received $456 million from the United States government to support their move towards production. After the vaccine provided protection in experiments on monkeys, Johnson & Johnson began Phase 1/2 trials in July.

Based on promising results in these studies, Johnson & Johnson launched a Phase 3 trial in September using just one dose rather than two. Although Johnson & Johnson initially set out to recruit 60,000 volunteers, it capped the trial at 45,000 in December as cases rose.

On Jan. 29, Johnson & Johnson announced that the trial had proven that the vaccine was safe and effective, and the F.D.A. released a similar analysis on Feb. 24. Johnson & Johnson published a paper on the trial in the New England Journal of Medicine on April 21, 2021.

Bahrain became the first country to authorize the vaccine for emergency use on Feb. 25. Two days later, the United States followed suit. South Africa dropped plans to use AstraZeneca’s vaccine for their health care workers after a small trial failed to show it was effective against the B.1.351 variant that had grown dominant across the country. They began using Johnson & Johnson’s instead.

In August 2020, the federal government agreed to pay Johnson & Johnson $1 billion for 100 million doses if the vaccine was authorized. Most of the U.S. supply was supposed to be made by Baltimore-based Emergent Solutions. But the company struggled to get the vaccine’s complex manufacturing up and running. In April 2021, the F.D.A. issued a scathing report about the company’s lax standards. At least 15 million doses of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine were contaminated at the factory.

As a result, the company only delivered 4 million doses to the United States after authorization, shipping them from its factory in the Netherlands. On April 13 the U.S. government recommended a pause in using the vaccine while it investigated reports of rare blood clots. Ten days later, C.D.C. researchers reported 15 cases of the unusual clots in nearly 8 million people who received the vaccine. The government decided to lift the pause and add a warning to the vaccine that younger women may run a slight risk of the severe side effect. On May 3, Denmark announced it would no longer use Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine, citing its risk of blood clots and the country’s ample supply of other vaccines.

Johnson & Johnson’s contract calls for it to deliver 100 million doses by June 2021. As it works towards getting the Baltimore facility certified, it is also getting help from Merck, which announced on March 2 it would assist Johnson & Johnson with manufacturing the vaccine.

The European Union reached a similar deal on Oct. 8, 2020 for 200 million doses. But after concerns about rare blood clots emerged, reports surfaced that the E.U. might not renew its contract with the company. On March 29, a coalition of African countries announced that it has secured up to 400 million doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine through 2022. Shipments could begin as soon as the third quarter of 2021. COVAX, an international collaboration to deliver the vaccine equitably across the world, secured 500 million doses. The company is aiming for production of a billion doses in 2021.

On Nov. 16, 2020, Johnson & Johnson announced that they were also launching a second Phase 3 trial to observe the effects of two doses of their vaccine, instead of just one. The results are expected in the third quarter of 2021. In February, the company also launched a trial for pregnant women and in March it announced it would soon start trials on children. Johnson & Johnson’s chief executive said in a March 4 interview that the vaccine could become available for children by September.

For more details, see How the Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Works.

Stopped use in: Denmark.
Emergency use in: Bahrain, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, European Union, Greenland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, Thailand, United States, Zambia. Emergency use validation from the World Health Organization. Endorsed by the Africa Regulatory Taskforce NEW.
Updated May 3

Johnson & Johnson

vaccine

EUROPEAN

UNION

DENMARK

CANADA

SOUTH

KOREA

U.S.

BAHRAIN

THAILAND

BRAZIL

ZAMBIA

COLOMBIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Johnson & Johnson

vaccine

EUROPEAN

UNION

DENMARK

CANADA

SOUTH

KOREA

U.S.

BAHRAIN

THAILAND

BRAZIL

ZAMBIA

COLOMBIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Approved

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Early, limited or

emergency use

Johnson &

Johnson

vaccine

EUROPEAN

UNION

DENMARK

CANADA

SOUTH

KOREA

U.S.

BAHRAIN

THAILAND

ZAMBIA

BRAZIL

SOUTH

AFRICA

Stopped use

in favor of other

vaccines

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Johnson & Johnson

vaccine

CANADA

U.S.

BRAZIL

EUROPEAN

UNION

DENMARK

SOUTH

KOREA

BAHRAIN

THAILAND

ZAMBIA

SOUTH

AFRICA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Stopped use

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES

The Italian biotechnology company ReiThera has developed a Covid-19 vaccine, called GRAd-COV2, that is based on an adenovirus that infects gorillas. Working in collaboration with the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, they found that it produced strong levels of antibodies in mice and monkeys. In July 2020, they launched a Phase 1 clinical trial. In November, they announced that the vaccine was well tolerated and produced antibodies, and released a report on the trial in April 2021. The vaccine is now in a Phase 2/3 trial.
Updated May 1

PHASE 2

In the spring of 2020, the Israel Institute for Biological Research started work on a coronavirus vaccine based on vesicular stomatitis viruses. They engineered the viruses to carry the gene for the coronavirus spike protein. On Oct. 25, the Israeli government announced that the vaccine, called Brilife, would be going into a Phase 1 trial. The Phase 2 trial, which is recruiting up to 1,000 volunteers, started on Jan. 5. It’s not clear how the trial will fare now that Israel is aggressively vaccinating its citizens with authorized vaccines by Pfizer. The Jerusalem Post reported that because of trial delays, Brilife may not be ready for distribution until early 2023.

On March 15, the Jerusalem Post reported that Haddasah University Medical Center had signed an agreement to extend the trial to Brazil.
Updated May 6

PHASE 1

While many vaccines are given as injections, some vaccines can be taken as a pill. Oral vaccines have been approved for diseases including polio, cholera, and typhoid fever. The small San Francisco company Vaxart specializes in developing oral vaccines. They have created and tested pills for influenza and other diseases. Last spring Vaxart began work on an oral vaccine for Covid-19. It contains an adenovirus called Ad5 (the same viral vector in CanSinoBio’s vaccine and in Russia’s Sputnik V).

When Vaxart gave the pill to mice, they produced antibodies against the coronavirus. Mice don’t suffer symptoms of Covid-19, however, so the researchers then switched to hamsters, which do. In an unpublished study, they found that the vaccine pill not only dramatically reduced the amount of coronavirus in sick hamsters, but also protected them from two important symptoms of the disease: weight loss and swollen lungs.

The company’s stock price increased 3,600 percent in the first half of 2020. In June, The New York Times reported, a hedge fund that partly controlled the company sold off most of its shares, netting over $200 million in profits. In the wake of that reporting, the Department of Justice began investigating the company, while a number of shareholder lawsuits were brought against Vaxart, its executives and its board.

In October, the company began giving the pill to volunteers in a Phase 1 clinical trial. On Feb. 3, Vaxart announced that the trial revealed no serious safety concerns. While the pill produced a response from T cells, it didn’t produce encouraging neutralizing antibodies. Its stock price plunged 60 percent on the news. On Feb. 25, the company announced it would advance to a Phase 2 trial in the second quarter of 2021.
Updated March 20

PHASE 1

In 2019, researchers at the University of Hong Kong and Xiamen University created a nasal-spray vaccine for the flu based on a genetically weakened form of the influenza virus. In early 2020, they engineered the vaccine to produce part of the coronavirus spike protein as well. On Sept. 9, they received approval to start clinical trials in partnership with Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy. They registered a Phase 1 trial on March 22, 2021. The researchers are receiving $5.4 million in support from CEPI, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.
Updated March 22

PHASE 1

Three decades ago, the German Center for Infection Research developed a smallpox vaccine from a harmless virus called Modified Vaccinia Ankara, or MVA for short. In recent years, they adapted it to create a vaccine for MERS, a disease caused by another coronavirus.

This spring, they made an MVA-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that is causing the Covid-19 pandemic. It carries the gene for the spike protein, which is produced inside cells that it invades. On Sept. 29, the center and a consortium of German universities registered a Phase 1 trial. In January the center announced that their initial formulation provided disappointing results and are postponing the trial until they update it.
Updated Jan. 13

PHASE 1

The California-based company ImmunityBio created a vaccine using the Ad5 adenovirus, the same one used by CanSinoBio and the Gamaleya Institute in Russia. ImmunityBio engineered the Ad5 virus to carry genes for two genes from the coronavirus. In addition to the spike protein, it also carries the gene for a protein called nucleocapsid. The company hopes that this combination will provoke a strong immune response.

The company found that the vaccine protects monkeys from the coronavirus. ImmunityBio launched a Phase 1 trial of a Covid-19 vaccine in October in the United States and another in South Africa in January. In February the company registered a Phase 1 trial of an oral version of the vaccine.

The chairman and C.E.O. of ImmunityBio is billionaire Patrick Soon-Shiong, the owner of the Los Angeles Times.
Updated Feb. 18

PHASE 1

Researchers at City of Hope, a California biomedical research institute, created a vaccine based on a weakened form of a virus called Modified Vaccinia Ankara, or MVA for short. They added two coronavirus genes to the virus — one for the spike protein, and one for another protein called nucleocapsid. They hope the combination will enable the vaccine to produce immunity that’s both fast and long-lasting. On Nov. 24 they announced the start of a Phase 1 trial, with hopes for a Phase 2 trial to start in the second quarter of 2021. But the researchers have faced delays in recruiting enough participants for their Phase 1 study. As of March 12, they had reached less than half of their goal of 129 participants.
Updated March 31

PHASE 1

In April, the South Korean biotech company Cellid began to develop a vaccine for Covid-19. The vaccine is based on a combination of two strains of adenoviruses, called Ad5 and Ad35. After testing the vaccine on monkeys, Cellid entered into a partnership with the South Korean chemical manufacturer LG Chem to manufacture the vaccine. In December, they registered a Phase 1 trial.
Updated Dec. 14

PHASE 1

Vaccine name: AdCOVID
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 1 dose
Type: Nasal spray
Storage: Refrigerated

Maryland-based Altimmune is a biopharmaceutical company that focuses on developing vaccines delivered by nasal spray. Recently, they’ve tackled influenza and anthrax using this technology. They have now used it to make a nasal spray vaccine for Covid-19, delivering the Ad5 adenovirus to the airway. The company says its nasal spray may be more effective for blocking the transmission of the virus than vaccines given by injection. In a study on mice, AltImmune researchers found that a single dose of the vaccine gave complete protection from a lethal infection of coronaviruses. On Dec. 22, the company registered a Phase 1 clinical trial of a single dose of the vaccine They began recruiting volunteers on Feb. 25. In a May presentation, AltImmune scientists said they planned to reach a Phase 3 trial at the end of 2021.
Updated May 5

PHASE 1

On Feb. 11, Indian regulators gave Bharat Biotech approval to launch a Phase 1 trial of a vaccine delivered as a nasal spray. The spray, called BBV154, contains a chimpanzee adenovirus developed by researchers at Washington University. They found that it could produce coronavirus antibodies in mice with just a single dose. BBV154 is Bharat Biotech’s second foray into coronavirus vaccine clinical trials. Their vaccine Covaxin, made of inactivated coronaviruses, is already in emergency use in India.
Updated Feb. 16

PHASE 1


In 2020, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York developed a Covid-19 vaccine based on a virus called Newcastle Disease Virus, or NDV for short. NDV is a bird pathogen and does not cause symptoms in humans. The researchers engineered NDV to carry the gene for a modified version of the coronavirus spike protein called HexaPro, developed at the University of Texas. They then grew the modified virus in chicken eggs. The researchers inactivated the NDVs with chemicals and combined them with immune-boosting chemicals called adjuvants. The researchers found that the vaccine produced high levels of coronavirus antibodies in mice and hamsters. They published the results of their experiments in November.

On Feb. 22, Mahidol University in Thailand registered a Phase 1 trial of the vaccine, called NDV-HXP-S. They are running the trial in collaboration with the Government Pharmaceutical Organization, a Thai state-run drug manufacturer. Avi-Mex in Mexico also licensed NDV-HXP-S and launched its own Phase 1 trial. The Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals in Vietnam has done the same. In Brazil, the Butantan Institute has applied for permission to start a trial as well, which is expected to start soon.

The vaccine could potentially help low- to middle-income countries secure their own supplies of Covid-19 vaccines. The virus can be safely grown in large quantities in chicken eggs, the same way influenza vaccines have been produced since the 1950s. As a result, NDV-HXP-S could be very cheap to make.
Updated May 6

PHASE 1

Gritstone Oncology has developed experimental vaccines in recent years that teach the immune system to attack tumors. Last year they constructed a vaccine for Covid-19 that presents a number of targets in the coronavirus for attack.

The researchers constructed a piece of DNA that encodes the entire spike protein of the coronavirus. In addition, it encodes instructions for building small pieces of other viral proteins called nucleocapsid and ORF3a. They then inserted this cassette into the genes of a chimpanzee adenovirus. The spike protein provokes the body to make antibodies, while the pieces of other proteins train the immune system to recognize infected cells and kill them.

In addition, the researchers created an RNA molecule with the same genetic instructions, which they put in a shell. Once the shell slips into a cell, the RNA molecule can make copies of itself, and the cell then makes proteins from those copies.

In a Phase 1 trial launched in March, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases is testing how well these two vaccines work together, with the chimpanzee adenovirus serving as the first dose and the self-amplifying RNA as the second. The researchers hope that this combination will produce a better immune response than two doses of either vaccine.
Updated March 4

PHASE 1

Meissa Vaccines has developed a vaccine that can be delivered as a spray or drops into the nose. To make the vaccine, researchers started off with another virus, called respiratory syncytial virus (RSV for short). The researchers introduced mutations into the RSV virus’s genes so that it replicated too slowly to cause disease. Then they added a gene for the coronavirus spike protein, so that the weakened RSV viruses could present it to the immune system. On March 15, Meissa registered a Phase 1 trial for the vaccine.
Updated March 20

ABANDONED

The American company Merck acquired the Austrian firm Themis Bioscience in June to develop their vaccine, which had been originally developed at Institut Pasteur. The vaccine used a weakened measles virus that carries a gene for the coronavirus spike protein. Researchers launched a Phase 1 trial in August. On Jan. 25, Merck announced it was abandoning the effort, because the vaccine provoked a response that was weaker than a natural infection. In March they entered into a partnership with Johnson & Johnson to help produce their vaccine instead.
Updated March 4

ABANDONED

In addition to its project with Themis, Merck partnered with IAVI on a second viral vector vaccine. It was based on vesicular stomatitis viruses, the same approach Merck successfully used to produce the first approved vaccine for Ebola. They designed their coronavirus vaccine as a pill, which could have made it easier to distribute than syringes for injections. Merck and IAVI received $38 million from the United States government to support their research, and on September 30 they registered a Phase 1 trial. But on Jan. 25, they announced they were abandoning the effort because the vaccine failed to trigger an immune system comparable to what happens in a natural infection of Covid-19.
Updated Jan. 25

PRECLINICAL

Other viral vector vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Ankara University; ID Pharma; Institut Pasteur Lille; KU Leuven; Ohio State University and Kazakh National Agrarian University; the Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council; TheraVectys and Institut Pasteur; Thomas Jefferson University and Bharat Biotech; Tonix Pharmaceuticals; University of Georgia; University of Helsinki, University of Eastern Finland, and Rokote Laboratories Finland; University of Pittsburgh; University of Western Ontario; Valo Therapeutics and University of Helsinki; Vivaldi Biosciences; Walvax Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, and Tianjin Medical University; Zydus Cadila.
Updated Feb. 18

Protein-Based Vaccines

Vaccines that contain coronavirus proteins but no genetic material. Some vaccines contain whole proteins, and some contain fragments of them. Some pack many of these molecules on nanoparticles.

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN TURKMENISTAN EARLY USE IN RUSSIA

Vaccine name: EpiVacCorona
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Stable in refrigerator for up to two years

On Aug. 26, the Vector Institute, a Russian biological research center, registered a Phase 1/2 trial for a coronavirus vaccine they call EpiVacCorona. The vaccine contains small portions of viral proteins, known as peptides. Less than two months later, on Oct. 14, Vladimir Putin announced that Russia has granted regulatory approval to the vaccine, making it the second one to receive that designation after the Gamaleya Institute’s Sputnik V vaccine.

A Phase 3 trial began in November, and as of Dec. 15, the Interfax News Agency reported that 1,438 volunteers had received the vaccine.

In January, Russia launched a mass vaccination campaign that included EpiVacCorona.. In February, Tass reported that the immune response from EpiVacCorona lasted “for approximately a year.” On March 3, the Vector Institute registered their trial on an international registry, indicating that they expected to deliver preliminary results in August 2021. Tass reported in early May that more than 90% of people who received the vaccine developed antibodies.

Results from EpiVacCorona’s Phase 1/2 trial were published in an obscure Russian journal in late March, but the data has concerned outside experts, who have pointed out serious flaws in the study.

Approved for use in: Turkmenistan.
Early use in: Russia.
Updated May 6

Vector Institute

vaccine

RUSSIA

TURKMENISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Vector Institute

vaccine

RUSSIA

TURKMENISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Vector Institute

vaccine

RUSSIA

TURKMENISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Vector Institute

vaccine

RUSSIA

TURKMENISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3 EMERGENCY USE IN CHINA, UZBEKISTAN

Vaccine name: ZF2001
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 3 doses, 4 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection

The Chinese company Anhui Zhifei Longcom and the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences partnered to make a vaccine. Their candidate is composed of an adjuvant, along with a section of the spike protein called the receptor-binding domain. They launched Phase 2 trials in July, followed by a Phase 3 trial with 29,000 volunteers in December. China authorized the vaccine for emergency use on March 15.

Emergency use in: China, Uzbekistan.
Updated March 15

Anhui Zhifei Longcom

and IMCAS vaccine

CHINA

UZBEKISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Anhui Zhifei Longcom

and IMCAS

vaccine

CHINA

UZBEKISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Anhui Zhifei

Longcom and

IMCAS

CHINA

UZBEKISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Anhui Zhifei Longcom

and IMCAS

vaccine

CHINA

UZBEKISTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3

Vaccine name: NVX-CoV2373
Efficacy: 96% against original coronavirus, 86% against B.1.1.7, 49% against B.1.351
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Stable in refrigerator

Maryland-based Novavax makes vaccines by sticking proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve taken on a number of different diseases this way; their flu vaccine finished Phase 3 clinical trials last March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations invested $384 million to support research on the vaccine. In July the U.S. government awarded Novavax another $1.6 billion to support the vaccine’s clinical trials and manufacturing.

After getting promising results from preliminary studies in monkeys and humans, Novavax launched a Phase 2 trial on 2,900 people in South Africa in August, and the next month it launched a Phase 3 trial with up to 15,000 volunteers in the United Kingdom. A 30,000-person Phase 3 trial in the United States was delayed because of problems with manufacturing the doses required for the study. It finally launched on Dec. 28 and is expected to deliver results in spring 2021. In March, the chief executive of Novavax said their vaccine might get authorized by the F.D.A. in May.

On March 11, Novavax reported that their United Kingdom trial determined an efficacy rate of 96 percent against the original coronavirus. But in South Africa, where volunteers were exposed to the variant B.1.351, the efficacy was only 49 percent. The company is developing a new version of the vaccine that is tailored to that variant.

In September, Novavax reached an agreement with the Serum Institute of India, a major vaccine manufacturer, that could enable them to produce as many as 2 billion doses a year. But supply chain issues have forced Novavax to push back its predictions. On April 13, Novavax said it could reach its production goal of 150 million doses per month by the third quarter of 2021. They have an agreement with other countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and South Korea. On Feb. 18, Novavax announced it would supply 1.1 billion doses to COVAX, a consortium that seeks to distribute vaccines to all countries across the world.

On May 3, the company expanded its U.S. Phase 3 trial to include volunteers as young as 12. Novavax’s vaccine is one of several being tested in an Oxford study that gauges how well alternating doses can boost immunity.

For more details, see How the Novavax Vaccine Works.
Updated May 5

PHASE 3

Cuba’s Finlay Vaccine Institute developed a vaccine known as Soberana 2. It contains a part of the coronavirus spike protein, fused to a standard tetanus vaccine to make it stable. Soberana 2 also contains aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant to boost the immune system.

After testing Soberana 2 in animals, Finlay researchers started a Phase 1 trial in October, followed by a Phase 2 trial in December. On March 3, the Finlay Vaccine Institute registered a Phase 3 trial for Soberana 2, with plans to recruit 44,010 participants in Havana. Researchers began dosing trial participants in Iran on April 26. Cuban authorities expect results from the final trial by the end of May.

Cuban scientists have reported that they are also testing a combination of Soberana 2 with a boost of another Cuba-made vaccine called Soberana Plus.

Cuba is planning to make 100 million doses of Soberana 2 in order to vaccinate its entire population. Cuba is pinning hopes on the vaccine as a source of economic benefit to the island.
Updated May 6

PHASE 3

Vaccine name: CoVLP
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Stable in refrigerator

Canada-based Medicago, partly funded by the cigarette maker Philip Morris, grows vaccines in a plant called Nicotiana benthamiana, a wild species related to tobacco. They deliver virus genes into leaves, and the plant cells then create protein shells that mimic viruses.

In July, Medicago launched Phase 1 trials on a plant-based Covid-19 vaccine in combination with adjuvants to boost the immune system’s response to the viral proteins. In that study, they found that an adjuvant made by GSK produced promising levels of antibodies in volunteers. On Oct. 23, the company announced it had reached an agreement with the government of Canada to supply 76 million doses. A Phase 2/3 trial of the vaccine began on Nov. 12. Medicago and GSK launched a Phase 3 trial on March 16, and Canada announced a rolling review of their vaccine on April 23. At a conference in May, a Medicago official said the company expected to seek authorization for their vaccine in Canada in the third quarter of 2021.
Updated May 10

PHASE 3

The Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Cuba launched a trial at the end of November on a coronavirus vaccine called Abdala. The name is from a poem by the nineteenth-century poet José Marti. The Abdala vaccine consists of a piece of the coronavirus spike protein called the receptor binding domain. On Feb. 1, the center held a press conference to announce the start of a Phase 2 trial. A Phase 3 trial that will recruite up to 48,000 participants was launched on March 18.
Updated March 20

PHASE 3


After the SARS epidemic in 2002, Baylor College of Medicine researchers began developing a vaccine that could prevent a new outbreak. Despite promising early results, support for the research disappeared. Because the coronaviruses that cause SARS and Covid-19 are very similar, the researchers revived the project in partnership with the Texas Children’s Hospital. The researchers have found that the Covid-19 vaccine produces antibodies in mice.

The Indian company Biological E licensed it in August and launched a Phase 1/2 trial in November, combining the viral proteins with an adjuvant made by Dynavax. On Dec. 29, Biological E and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations announced a partnership to advance the development and manufacturing of the vaccine, known as BECOV2, with CEPI initially contributing $5 million to the effort.

On April 24, Biological E announced it was starting a Phase 3 trial. Two days later, the Biden administration said it would fund a substantial expansion of Biological E’s manufacturing capability. The company has a target of 300 million doses ready for immediate deployment when the vaccine is approved, and plans on making 1.2 billion doses in 2022.
Updated May 7

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES

Clover Biopharmaceuticals developed a vaccine containing the spike protein from coronaviruses. To further stimulate the immune system, the company is testing so-called adjuvants made by British drugmaker GSK and the American company Dynavax. Investments from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness supported the development of manufacturing that could lead to the production of a billion doses a year. Clover’s formula looks to be especially durable; the vaccine can sit out at room temperature for a month and remain viable.

Clover launched a Phase 1 trial last June, and in December the company announced that the vaccine triggered a high level of antibodies. It registered a Phase 2/3 trial with the GSK adjuvant, but in February the company announced it was cancelling the study. Instead, it has moved forward with a trial with the Dynavax adjuvant.
Updated March 25

PHASE 2

In July, researchers at West China Hospital of Sichuan University published a study in Nature describing a vaccine made from the RBD region of the spike protein that could protect mice and monkeys from the coronavirus. To make the vaccine, researchers encode the RBD region in a gene, which they insert into a virus. They then infect insect cells with the virus, causing them to make the molecule in huge amounts. On Aug. 24, they launched a Phase 1 trial, and on Nov. 16 they moved to Phase 2 with a study on 960 volunteers. On Jan. 22 they registered another Phase 2 trial with 4000 volunteers.
Updated Jan. 24

PHASE 2

Taiwan-based vaccine maker Medigen is making a vaccine made of a combination of spike proteins and an adjuvant from Dynavax. After a series of promising experiments on animals, they began injecting volunteers for a Phase 1 trial in early October. On Dec. 30, Medigen announced that it had received permission to commence a Phase 2 trial. The first volunteers in the trial were injected in late January.
Updated Jan. 26

PHASE 2

Dallas-based Vaxxinity is testing a vaccine containing parts of several viral proteins. (Vaxxinity formed in April 2021 when the companies COVAXX and United Neuroscience combined.) On Sept. 11, COVAXX registered a Phase 1 trial in Taiwan which led to 100 percent of volunteers producing antibodies without any serious side effects. In February COVAXX launched a Phase 2 trial, also in Taiwan. A Phase 2/3 trial is planned to launch in Brazil, India and other countries. On Nov. 25, Covaxx announced agreements with countries including Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru to deliver more than 140 million doses for $2.8 billion. In January, the company announced they were also starting preclinical research on a vaccine tailored specifically to newly emerged coronavirus variants that could potentially evade conventional vaccines.
Updated April 1

PHASE 2

In addition to their mRNA vaccine, Sanofi developed a Covid-19 vaccine based on viral proteins in early 2020. They produced the proteins with engineered viruses that grow inside insect cells. GSK supplemented these proteins with adjuvants that stimulate the immune system. The vaccine is based on the same design Sanofi used to create Flublok, an approved vaccine for influenza. The companies launched a Phase 1/2 clinical trial in September 2020.

Sanofi’s vaccine was widely expected to play a major role in tackling the pandemic. In the United States, Operation Warp Speed selected it as one of six vaccines to secure in large quantities, reaching a $2.1 billion agreement for 100 million doses. On Sept. 18 Sanofi closed another deal with the European Union for 300 million doses for an unspecified amount, and later reached an agreement with Canada for up to 72 million doses. In addition, Sanofi agreed to provide 200 million doses to COVAX, an international collaboration to deliver the vaccine equitably across the world. The company expected to move to a Phase 3 trial in December and potentially seek emergency use authorization in the United States by spring. Sanofi announced plans to make up to one billion doses in 2021.

But on Dec. 11, Sanofi and GSK announced that their vaccine was proving disappointing. While it provided promising levels of antibodies in people under 50, older people did not respond as strongly as they had hoped. The company halted the trial. In January Sanofi decided to help Pfizer and BioNTech make 100 million doses of their vaccine, and they reached a similar agreement with Johnson & Johnson in February.

Meanwhile, Sanofi developed a stronger formulation of their own vaccine. On Feb. 22, the company launched a new Phase 2 trial. They expect results from the new trial in mid-May. If they can get sufficiently high antibodies with the new vaccine, they will move on to Phase 3 studies by the end of the month. Sanofi and GSK are now hoping to get authorization for their vaccine by the end of 2021.
Updated May 10

PHASE 2

On Dec. 10, Nanogen Biopharmaceutical in Vietnam began recruiting 60 volunteers for a Phase 1 trial of their protein-based vaccine Nanocovax. Nikkei Asia reported that Nanogen is considering Phase 3 trials in Bangladesh, India, and Indonesia. The company projects the vaccine will become available in Vietnam in mid-2021. Vietnam news agencies announced that Nanocovax entered Phase 2 trials in February.
Updated March 9

PHASE 2

Researchers at Zhongyianke Biotech, Liaoning Maokangyuan Biotech and the Academy of Military Medical Sciences are using Chinese hamster ovary cells to help create immunity in humans. They registered a Phase 1 trial in China last November. On March 24, they advanced the vaccine to Phase 2.
Updated March 25

PHASE 2

Cuban researchers at Finlay Vaccine Institute have also developed a single-dose vaccine called Soberana Plus. Like its other candidates, Soberana Plus targets the part of the coronavirus known as the RBD and contains an adjuvant. But Finlay researchers are specifically tailoring this vaccine to people who have already had Covid-19 — a first of its kind. They say that such a strategy can help prevent reinfection and limit the spread of new variants. After positive results from a Phase 1 trial, Finlay received approval to begin a Phase 2 trial among Covid-19 survivors on April 9. Cuban scientists have reported that combining two doses of Soberana 2 with one dose of Soberana Plus has yielded solid results.
Updated May 1

PHASE 2

On Feb. 7, Iran announced that it was launching a clinical trial of a second vaccine, known as Cov-Pars Razi and developed by the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. The vaccine contains fragments of coronavirus spike proteins and is delivered in three doses: two injections and one nasal spray. The researchers registered a Phase 2 trial on April 13.
Updated April 20

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

On Aug. 18, the head of epidemiology at Cuba’s public health ministry announced the country’s first trial of a vaccine of Covid-19. The Finlay Vaccine Institute in Havana began testing a vaccine called Soberana 1. It contains a part of the spike protein, called RBD, along with two extra ingredients: proteins from a bacteria and aluminum hydroxide. These ingredients, known as adjuvants, boost the immune system’s response to the coronavirus RBD.
Updated Dec. 18

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

SpyBiotech, a company spun off from the University of Oxford, announced in September that the first volunteers in an Australian Phase 1/2 trial were receiving their Covid-19 vaccine. The researchers created the vaccine from a mixture of proteins. Some of the proteins, from hepatitis B viruses, assemble themselves into hollow shells. The researchers decorated these shells with part of the coronavirus spike protein. The Serum Institute of India, which licensed the technology from SpyBiotech, is running the trials.
Updated Sept. 24

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Shionogi, a Japanese pharmaceutical giant, launched a Phase 1/2 trial of a coronavirus vaccine on Dec. 16. The company developed it in collaboration with the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Kyushu University. The vaccine is based on a coronavirus protein which is produced in insect cells by genetically altered viruses. But according to a March report from The Japan Times, Shionogi has faced difficulties with recruiting enough participants for its trials, and it is unlikely that the vaccine will be ready by the end of 2021.
Updated April 5

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

South Korean vaccine producer EuBiologics launched a Phase 1/2 trial of a protein-based vaccine in late January. Known as EuCorVac-19, the vaccine combines the spike protein with an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system.
Updated Feb. 23

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Last spring, researchers at the University of Washington developed a nanoparticle studded with pieces of the coronavirus spike protein. Experiments on mice showed a strong immune response. The South Korean vaccine company SK Bioscience licensed the vaccine, called GBP510. After partnering with GSK, they launched a Phase 1/2 trial of the vaccine in February. It is the second vaccine SK Bioscience has put into trials, after launching a study on another protein-based vaccine called NBP2001.
Updated Feb. 8

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

The Massachusetts-based company VBI Vaccines developed a coronavirus vaccine that is based on hollow, virus-like protein shells. The company added pieces of coronavirus vaccines to the shells, selected for their potential both to produce antibodies and to train T cells to attack infected cells. In February, they registered a placebo-controlled Phase 1/2 trial in Canada on 780 volunteers, comparing the effects from using one or two doses. The vaccine, called VBI-2902a, is a combination of protein shells and aluminum phosphate as an adjuvant.

VBI Vaccines is also experimenting with vaccines that combine proteins from the three coronaviruses that cause severe disease in humans: Covid-19, SARS, and MERS. They are exploring the possibility that such a vaccine could someday protect against a wide swath of coronaviruses, including ones that have yet to spill over from animal hosts.
Updated March 1

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

As part of the European Union-funded PREVENT-nCoV consortium, a team of biotechnology companies and research laboratories developed a vaccine against Covid-19. It contains a coronavirus protein called nucleocapsid. The vaccine, called ABNCoV2, uses technology from consortium members AdaptVac and ExpreS2ion, among others. After promising preclinical results in primates, Bavarian Nordic announced that it would proceed with a Phase 1/2 trial of the vaccine in the Netherlands. The first volunteers received doses of the vaccine on March 15.
Updated March 20

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Massachusetts-based Akston Biosciences has developed a vaccine that targets a part of the coronavirus spike protein called the receptor-binding domain. Researchers at Akston say that focusing on this section is an efficient way to boost immunity against new variants. They began a Phase 1/2 trial of their vaccine, known as AKS-452, on April 12.
Updated April 12

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Researchers at China’s Sinopharm have created a protein-based vaccine that uses a genetically engineered spike protein to help the body produce antibodies. Sinopharm’s two other vaccine candidates, one developed with the Beijing Institute and one developed with the Wuhan Institute, use inactivated coronaviruses to develop immunity. Sinopharm started a Phase 1/2 trial on April 24.
Updated April 28

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Researchers at the Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products, Beijing Zhong Sheng Heng Yi Pharmaceutical Technology and Zhengzhou University are testing a vaccine that is grown in Chinese hamster ovary cells. They registered a Phase 1/2 trial on May 3.
Updated May 5

PHASE 1

The Australian company Vaxine developed a vaccine that combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. A Phase 1 trial began in June 2020, and the company announced promising results in April 2021. In May, Vaxine said it would launch a Phase 2/3 trial in Iran within a few weeks. If the trial proved successful, the vaccine would be produced by the Iranian company CinnaGen.
Updated May 10

PHASE 1

A second plant-based vaccine is in development at Kentucky BioProcessing, an American subsidiary of British American Tobacco, the maker of Lucky Strike and other cigarettes. Like Medicago, Kentucky BioProcessing engineers a wild relative of tobacco called Nicotiana benthamiana to make viral proteins. The company previously used this technique to make a drug called Zmapp for Ebola. A Phase 1 trial launched in December.
Updated Dec. 17

PHASE 1

Taiwan-based vaccine manufacturer Adimmune got permission to launch a Phase 1 trial on Aug. 20. The vaccine contains the RBD section of the virus’s spike protein. In December, the Taiwan press reported that Adimmune failed to find the right dose of their vaccine and needed to try a new formulation.
Updated Dec. 31

PHASE 1

In the spring, researchers at the University of Tübingen in Germany created a vaccine made of eight parts of two viral proteins, along with an immune-stimulating adjuvant. In September they launched a Phase 1 trial.
Updated Sept. 15

PHASE 1

SK Bioscience, a South Korean vaccine maker, won approval on Nov. 23 from the country’s Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for a vaccine called NBP2001. The vaccine contained fragments of the spike protein. In a Phase 1 trial, researchers are now testing the vaccine on 50 volunteers.
Updated Feb. 23

PHASE 1

In addition to their Abdala vaccine, the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Cuba announced on Nov. 26 that it was beginning a Phase 1 trial of a second vaccine, this one delivered as a nasal spray. Known as Mambisa, the vaccine contains a piece of the coronavirus spike protein called the receptor-binding domain, along with a protein from the hepatitis B virus that stimulates the immune system. The name refers to women who fought in Cuba’s nineteenth-century wars of independence.
Updated Feb. 10

PHASE 1

Vaccine name: COVAC
Efficacy: Unknown
Dose: 2 doses, 4 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection

The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization at the University of Saskatchewan has developed a vaccine candidate which uses protein subunits to develop immunity against the coronavirus. It was cleared for human testing late last year by the Canadian government. VIDO registered a Phase 1/2 trial on Jan. 8. If trials proceed as expected, researchers predict that at least one of their candidates will be ready by late 2021.
Updated Jan. 12

PHASE 1


A team of Turkish researchers at Middle East Technical University and Bilkent University have developed a vaccine that is made up of virus-like particles. Each particle carries four of the coronavirus proteins. On March 26, they registered a small Phase 1 trial sponsored by TUBITAK, the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey.
Updated March 27

PHASE 1

Scientists at Jiangsu Rec-Biotechnology have developed a vaccine, called ReCOV, that is made of viral proteins that are grown in Chinese hamster ovary cells. They registered a Phase 1 trial in New Zealand on March 26.
Updated March 30

PHASE 1

On April 1, 2021, French researchers at OSE Immunotherapeutics announced that they had received approval to launch a Phase 1 trial of a vaccine, called CoVepiT, in Belgium. Their vaccine can teach the body to develop an immune response against 11 different proteins of the coronavirus. The researchers picked these proteins because they have a low chance of mutating — a feature that, they say, makes the vaccine “variant-proof.”
Updated April 2

PHASE 1

Scientists at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research have designed a vaccine from a nanoparticle decorated with the coronavirus’s spike protein. Experiments on monkeys showed that the two-dose vaccine delivered extremely high levels of antibodies. On April 5, the army launched a Phase 1 trial. The vaccine designers hope to create a new version of the vaccine with proteins from other coronaviruses to offer protection that extends beyond Covid-19.
Updated April 5

ABANDONED

On Dec. 10, 2020, a vaccine from Australia’s University of Queensland was the first to be abandoned after entering a clinical trial. Cancelling the vaccine meant the collapse of a $1 billion deal with the Australian government for 51 million doses.

The vaccine studies offered great promise at first. Experiments on hamsters showed that the vaccine protected them from the coronavirus. The university launched a Phase 1 trial in July, combining coronavirus spike proteins with an adjuvant made by CSL. The trial delivered encouraging results: volunteers produced a high level of antibodies with no evidence of harmful side effects.

But then the researchers made an unwelcome discovery: some volunteers were getting positive tests for HIV, even though they were not actually infected with that virus. In a report released in February 2021, the researchers explained the false positives came about due to the way the researchers designed the vaccine.

To ensure that spike proteins can stimulate a strong immune response, the researchers had to prevent the molecules from unfolding and changing their shape. The researchers held the proteins in place with a molecular clamp, which was based on a segment of an HIV protein.

HIV tests use antibodies to probe for the presence of the virus’s proteins in people’s blood. The researchers thought that the antibodies would not grab the clamp. That assumption turned out to be wrong. Worried that false positive HIV test results would fuel hesitancy over getting Covid-19 vaccines, the Australian government decided to halt the trial.

“It will no longer feature in Australia’s vaccine plan,” said Prime Minister Scott Morrison at a press conference to announce the cancellation.
Updated Feb. 23

PRECLINICAL

Other protein-based vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Applied Biotechnology Institute; Baiya Phytopharm; BiOMVis and University of Trento; BioVaxys Technology; Chulalongkorn University; City College of New York and TechnoVax; Dyadic; EpiVax; Eyegene and Pharmcadd; Generex; GeoVax; Heat Biologics; iBio; Icosavax and University of Washington; Iconovo and ISR; ImmunoPrecise Antibodies; IMV; Instituto Buntantan; Intravacc; IrsiCaixa; Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center; MIGAL Galilee Research Institute; Nanografi Nano Technology, Middle East Technical University, and Ankara University; Navarrabiomed; NidoVax; Novavax; OncoGen; Oragenics Osaka University, BIKEN, and National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Japan; OSE Immunotherapeutics; Osivax; PDS Biotechnology; Quadram Institute; ReVacc Biotech; Saiba; Soligenix; Ufovax; University of Alberta; University of Pittsburgh; University of San Martin and CONICET, Argentina; University of Sao Paulo; University of Virginia; Vabiotech; VBI Vaccines and Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Vaxform; Verndari; Voltron Therapeutics; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.
Updated May 10

Inactivated or Attenuated Coronavirus Vaccines

Vaccines created from weakened coronaviruses or coronaviruses that have been killed with chemicals.

Inactivated

virus

Inactivated

virus

Inactivated

virus

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN CHINA, BAHRAIN, U.A.E. EMERGENCY USE IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Vaccine name: BBIBP-CorV
Efficacy: 78.1%
Dose: 2 doses, 3 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection

The Beijing Institute of Biological Products created an inactivated coronavirus vaccine that was put into clinical trials by the state-owned Chinese company Sinopharm. On Dec. 30, Sinopharm announced that the vaccine had an efficacy of 79.34 percent, leading the Chinese government to give it approval. On May 7, the World Health Organization put forward a similar efficacy estimate of 78.1 percent and gave the vaccine emergency use authorization. The details of the Phase 3 trial has yet to be published in a scientific journal.

Last June, Beijing Institute researchers reported that the vaccine produced promising results in monkeys. A Phase 1/2 trial then showed that the vaccine didn’t cause any serious side effects and enabled people to make antibodies against the coronavirus. In July a Phase 3 trial began in the United Arab Emirates in July, and in Morocco and Peru the following month.

On Sept. 14, the U.A.E. gave emergency approval for Sinopharm’s vaccine to use on health care workers, and soon government officials and others were also receiving it. Less than two months later, on Dec. 9, the U.A.E. gave full approval to BBIBP-CorV, announcing it had an efficacy rate of 86 percent. Since then a number of countries in the Near East have authorized it; on Jan. 29, Hungary authorized BBIBp-CorV, making the country the first European nation to use a Chinese vaccine.

In China, meanwhile, the government gave Sinopharm emergency approval in the summer 0f 2020. Government officials, health care workers, and other select groups began receiving BBIIP-CorV. In May, China claimed it can make up to 5 billion doses by the end of 2021, but Chinese officials warned that the country was struggling to manufacture enough doses for its own population.

In February 2021, as concerns grew about new mutations in the coronavirus, Chinese researchers tested BBIBP-CorV against a variant called B.1.351, which was first found in South Africa. They reported that the antibody response created by the vaccine was only modestly weaker against B.1.351. The study has not yet been published in a medical journal.

For more details, see How the Sinopharm Vaccine Works.

Approved for use in: Bahrain, China, United Arab Emirates.
Emergency use in: Argentina, Bangladesh NEW, Brunei, Cambodia, Egypt, Gabon, Guyana, Hungary, Indonesia NEW, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon NEW, Maldives, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, North Macedonia NEW, Pakistan, Peru, Venezuela, Zimbabwe. Emergency use validation from the World Health Organization.
Updated May 7

Sinopharm and

Beijing Institute

vaccine

HUNGARY

SERBIA

EGYPT

CHINA

IRAN

GUYANA

PAKISTAN

BAHRAIN

GABON

U.A.E.

VENEZUELA

ZIMBABWE

NAMIBIA

INDONESIA

PERU

SEYCHELLES

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Beijing Institute

vaccine

HUNGARY

SERBIA

EGYPT

CHINA

IRAN

PAKISTAN

BAHRAIN

GABON

U.A.E.

VENEZUELA

ZIMBABWE

NAMIBIA

INDONESIA

PERU

SEYCHELLES

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Beijing Inst.

vaccine

HUNGARY

SERBIA

EGYPT

CHINA

IRAN

PAKISTAN

BAHRAIN

GABON

U.A.E.

VENEZUELA

NAMIBIA

INDONESIA

PERU

SEYCHELLES

ARGENTINA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Beijing Inst.

vaccine

VENEZUELA

PERU

ARGENTINA

HUNGARY

SERBIA

EGYPT

CHINA

IRAN

PAKISTAN

BAHRAIN

U.A.E.

NAMIBIA

INDONESIA

SEYCHELLES

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN CHINA EMERGENCY USE IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Vaccine name: CoronaVac (formerly PiCoVacc)
Efficacy: 50.65% in Brazil trial, 91.25% in Turkey trial
Dose: 2 doses, 2 weeks apart
Type: Muscle injection
Storage: Refrigerated

Sinovac Biotech, a private Chinese company, developed an inactivated vaccine called CoronaVac in early 2020. In early 2021, trials in Brazil and Turkey showed that it could protect against Covid-19, but they delivered strikingly different results — in part because they designed the trials differently. In Brazil, the efficacy against Covid-19 with or without symptoms was 50 percent. In Turkey, the efficacy against Covid-19 with at least one symptom was 91.25 percent. Sinovac released some of their data on April 3, but has yet to publish the details of the trials as a preprint or in a medical journal. Nevertheless, Sinovac announced on Feb. 6 that China had given CoronaVac conditional approval. Other countries are also beginning to use the vaccine.

After creating their vaccine last spring, Sinovac ran a Phase 1/2 trial on 743 volunteers that revealed no severe adverse effects. Sinovac published the details of the trial in November in a medical journal, showing a comparatively modest production of antibodies. In July, Sinovac launched a Phase 3 trial in Brazil, followed by others in Indonesia and Turkey.

In that same month, Chinese government gave CoronaVac an emergency approval for limited use. In October, authorities in the eastern Chinese city of Jiaxing announced they were giving CoronaVac to people in relatively high-risk jobs, including medical workers, port inspectors and public service personnel.

The scientists running the Phase 3 trials began announcing early results at the end of December and continued to update them as new cases of Covid-19 arose. While the overall efficacy of the vaccine was lower in the Brazil trial, it showed stronger protection against severe forms of the disease. No one in the Brazil trial who received Sinovac had to be hospitalized.

Sinovac has struck deals with at least 11 countries and regions to supply them with SinoVac. Indonesia gave the vaccine emergency authorization on Jan. 11, and two days later the president of Indonesia received an injection of CoronaVac on live television. Turkey authorized the vaccine on Jan. 13, and its president got vaccinated the next day. Brazil authorized CoronaVac on Jan. 17. On May 4, the European Medicines Agency said it was launching a rolling review of CoronaVac, which will accelerate Sinovac’s marketing authorization if the company decides to apply for one.

On April 1, Sinovac announced that its capacity had increased to 2 billion doses after completing a third production line.

For more details, see How the Sinovac Vaccine Works.

Approved for use in: China.
Emergency use in: Azerbaijan, Brazil, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt NEW, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Zimbabwe.
Updated April 28

Sinovac vaccine

UKRAINE

TUNISIA

TURKEY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

THAILAND

BRAZIL

COLOMBIA

INDONESIA

ZIMBABWE

URUGUAY

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinovac vaccine

UKRAINE

TUNISIA

TURKEY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

THAILAND

BRAZIL

COLOMBIA

ZIMBABWE

INDONESIA

URUGUAY

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinovac vaccine

UKRAINE

TUNISIA

TURKEY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

MEXICO

THAILAND

BRAZIL

COLOMBIA

INDONESIA

CHILE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinovac vaccine

MEXICO

BRAZIL

COLOMBIA

URUGUAY

CHILE

UKRAINE

TUNISIA

TURKEY

CHINA

PAKISTAN

THAILAND

INDONESIA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3
APPROVED IN CHINA LIMITED USE IN U.A.E.

Along with their Beijing Institute vaccine, Sinopharm also tested an inactivated virus vaccine developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products. The Phase 1/2 trial showed that the vaccine produced antibodies in volunteers, some of whom experienced fevers and other side effects. Sinopharm said the vaccine’s efficacy was 72.51 percent. The Wuhan version of the vaccine is undergoing Phase 3 trials in several countries. In December, Peru briefly paused their Sinopharm trial to investigate neurological problems that one volunteer experienced, but determined that it had nothing to do with the vaccines. On Feb. 25, China announced the approval of the Wuhan vaccine for general use. The efficacy determined from the Phase 3 trials has yet to be published.

Approved for use in: China.
Limited use in: United Arab Emirates.
Updated March 4

Sinopharm and

Wuhan Institute

vaccine

CHINA

U.A.E.

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Wuhan Inst.

vaccine

CHINA

U.A.E.

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Wuhan Inst.

vaccine

CHINA

U.A.E.

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Sinopharm and

Wuhan Inst.

vaccine

CHINA

U.A.E.

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3 EMERGENCY USE IN INDIA, ELSEWHERE

Vaccine name: Covaxin (also known as BBV152 A, B, C)
Efficacy: 78%
Dose: 2 doses, 4 weeks apart
Storage: At least a week at room temperature

In collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, the Indian company Bharat Biotech designed Covaxin, a vaccine based on an inactivated form of the coronavirus. Studies on monkeys and hamsters found that it provided protection against infection. Last June, Covaxin became the first coronavirus vaccine created in India to go into clinical trials.

The phase 1/2 trial showed that the vaccine didn’t cause any serious side effects while producing antibodies to the coronavirus, and a follow-up study confirmed these results. On Oct. 23, the company announced they were initiating a Phase 3 trial, eventually recruiting over 25,800 volunteers. On Dec. 22, the company announced a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Ocugen to develop Covaxin for the United States market.

On Jan. 3, the Indian government granted Covaxin emergency authorization. The authorization came despite the fact that Bharat had yet to release Phase 3 data showing the vaccine is safe and effective.

Two months later, the company began releasing a series of reports about the trial. As of April 21, the vaccine had an estimated efficacy of 78 percent against mild, moderate, and severe Covid-19. For severe Covid-19 in particular, Covaxin had 100 percent efficacy. The company also found that the vaccine had an efficacy of 70 percent against Covid-19 without symptoms, suggesting that Covaxin can block the spread of the virus. These figures are based on the first 127 cases of Covid-19 in the trial. The final analysis of Covaxin’s safety and efficacy is expected in June.

In April, India saw a surge of new cases, many of which were caused by a new variant called B.1.617. Bharat researchers found that antibodies produced by Covaxin were modestly less effective at sticking to the variant virus. However, it’s unlikely that the vaccine will be significantly less effective against it.

In April, Covaxin announced it was ramping up its production to 700 million doses a year.

For more details, see How Bharat Biotech’s Vaccine Works.

Emergency use in: Botswana, Guatemala, Guyana, India, Iran, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Zimbabwe.
Updated April 23

Bharat Biotech’s

Covaxin vaccine

PHILIPPINES

NEPAL

IRAN

INDIA

MEXICO

ZIMBABWE

PARAGUAY

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Bharat Biotech’s

Covaxin vaccine

PHILIPPINES

NEPAL

IRAN

INDIA

MEXICO

ZIMBABWE

PARAGUAY

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Bharat Biotech’s

Covaxin

vaccine

PHILIPPINES

NEPAL

IRAN

MEXICO

INDIA

ZIMBABWE

PARAGUAY

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Bharat Biotech’s

Covaxin vaccine

MEXICO

PARAGUAY

PHILIPPINES

NEPAL

IRAN

INDIA

ZIMBABWE

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3 EARLY USE IN KAZAKHSTAN

The central Asian nation of Kazakhstan began research on a vaccine made from inactivated coronaviruses over the summer. On August 28, 2020, their Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems registered a Phase 1 trial on the vaccine. On Dec. 19, Kazinform reported that researchers had completed the Phase 2 trial, finding that the vaccine was safe and produced a promising immune response. The researchers commenced a Phase 3 trial In March, Kazakhstan’s vice minister of education and science announced that the vaccine, known as QazVac, was expected to be authorized in April, despite the lack of published results from the Phase 3 trial.

Kazakhstan began administering its vaccine to the public in late April.

Early use in: Kazakhstan.
Updated April 28

QazVac vaccine

KAZAKHSTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

QazVac vaccine

KAZAKHSTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

QazVac vaccine

KAZAKHSTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

QazVac vaccine

KAZAKHSTAN

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 3

Researchers at the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, which has invented vaccines for polio and hepatitis A, created an inactivated coronavirus vaccine. Last May, they launched a Phase 1 trial on 192 volunteers which indicated the vaccine was safe and produced an immune response. A Phase 2 trial followed on 750 volunteers, which led the researchers to select a two-week spacing between the two doses of the vaccine. In December the researchers launched a Phase 3 trial on up to 34,020 volunteers in Brazil and Malaysia.
Updated June 23

PHASE 3

Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products is a Chinese company that makes vaccines for diseases such as hepatitis B and measles. In August, AstraZeneca reached an agreement with Shenzhen to supply China with their adenovirus vaccine, despite the reports of corruption and scandals that have the company. In October Shenzhen Kangtai launched a Phase 1 trial on 180 volunteers of its own vaccine, based on inactivated coronaviruses. In February they added a Phase 2 trial to a U.S. registry, where they indicated the trial included 1,000 people and that the study would be completed by the end of the month. The company later registered a Phase 3 trial to begin May 2021.
Updated April 21

PHASE 3

The French vaccine maker Valneva created a vaccine from chemically inactivated coronaviruses, using an adjuvant from Dynavax. The vaccine, called VLA2001, is currently the only inactivated-virus vaccine being developed in Europe. On Dec. 16, Valneva launched a Phase 1/2 trial in the United Kingdom, and in April the company announced that the trial had delivered positive results. On April 22, Valneva launched a Phase 3 trial on 4,000 volunteers in the United Kingdom. The trial was different from the first wave of studies on Covid-19 vaccines, in which some volunteers got a vaccine and the others received a placebo. With a growing number of vaccines now authorized for use in Britain, such randomized clinical trials are now longer ethical. Instead, Valneva will give VLA2001 to half the volunteers, while the others will receive Vaxzevria, the vaccine made by AstraZeneca. Researchers will then observe whether VLA2001 produces similar levels of antibodies to Vaxzevria.

The company hopes to submit VLA2001 for authorization in fall 2021. The British government has already reached an agreement to purchase 100 million doses of the vaccine should it prove safe and effective, with an option to acquire a further 90 million.
Updated April 23

PHASE 3

Shafa Pharmed Pars, an Iranian pharmaceutical company, developed a vaccine made of inactivated coronaviruses. Known as COVIran Barekat, it entered a Phase 1 trial at the end of December. COVIran Barekat is the first vaccine developed in Iran to go into clinical testing. CovIran Barekat began Phase 3 trials on April 25.
Updated April 26

PHASE 2

On Nov. 5, Turkey’s Erciyes University announced they had begun injecting volunteers with an inactivated coronavirus vaccine called ERUCOV-VAC. It is the first clinical trial of a coronavirus vaccine developed in Turkey. On Dec. 14, the president of the university said that the Phase 1 trial was complete. Sabah Today reported the following month that Phase 2 trials had begun.
Updated Jan. 21

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES EARLY USE IN RUSSIA

The Chumakov Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences developed an inactivated coronavirus vaccine called CoviVac. On Oct. 14, Tass reported that clinical trials of the vaccine would begin in Kirov and St. Petersburg on Oct. 19. On Feb. 20, Russia approved the vaccine for domestic use, despite the fact that the Chumakov Center had yet to start a Phase 3 trial. By the end of the year, Russia planned on producing 20 million doses. On May 5, the director of the Chumakov Center said a third dose could be necessary in some people.

Early use in: Russia.
Updated May 6

Chumakov Center

vaccine

RUSSIA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Chumakov Center

vaccine

RUSSIA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Chumakov Center

vaccine

RUSSIA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

Chumakov Center

vaccine

RUSSIA

Approved

Early, limited or

emergency use

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

On March 22, Japan’s KM Biologics announced that it had begun a Phase 1/2 trial of its inactivated vaccine candidate, called KD-414. The company has also played a part in manufacturing AstraZeneca’s vaccine.
Updated May 7

PHASE 1

New York-based Codagenix develops vaccines based on live attenuated viruses, but with a twist: they create the viruses from scratch. Researchers rewrite the genome of viruses, introducing hundreds of mutations. Then they manufacture RNA molecules encoding the rewritten genes. In special host cells, the molecules can give rise to full-blown viruses. But thanks to their numerous mutations, they are too weak to cause Covid-19 when they’re delivered in a vaccine. After successful experiments in animals, a Phase 1 trial was launched in the United Kingdom in January.
Updated Jan. 12

PHASE 1

On March 16, Iran’s Ministry of Defence announced another vaccine made of inactivated coronaviruses. Known as Fakhravac, the vaccine is named after Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, Iran’s top nuclear scientist who was killed in November. The vaccine has completed a Phase 1 trial and will begin Phase 2 after Ramadan, the Tehran Times reported on May 5.
Updated May 6

PHASE 1

Turkish researchers at Koçak Farma have developed a vaccine made of inactivated coronaviruses. They began a Phase 1 trial on April 8.
Updated April 9

PHASE 1

In addition to its protein vaccine, the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey has also developed a vaccine that uses inactivated coronaviruses. On April 29, they registered a Phase 1 trial in Turkey.
Updated April 30

PRECLINICAL

Other inactivated or attenuated coronavirus vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Indian Immunologicals and Griffith University; Osaka University.
Updated Nov. 7

Note: Vaccines will be added to the tracker when they reach Phase 1, and tracked until they succeed or fail.

Did we miss something? To notify The Times of new developments, send updates to vaccinetracker@nytimes.com.

Tracking the Coronavirus



Additional reporting by Farnaz Fassihi, Denise Grady, Andrew E. Kramer, Matthew Kristoffersen, Hari Kumar, Cao Li, Jess Ruderman and Carlos Tejada.

Notes and corrections: Early versions of the tracker combined two vaccines by Sinopharm into one entry, before subsequent reporting confirmed they were two different vaccines. A previous version of the tracker stated that Pfizer had reached a deal with the E.U., when in fact the deal was made by AstraZeneca. A previous version of the tracker listed Canadian approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, when in fact they were conditional authorizations.

Sources: World Health Organization, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Center for Biotechnology Information, New England Journal of Medicine, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University. Cahill-Keyes map projection by Gene Keyes.